Friday, 21 May 2010


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William the Conqueror

The Duke of Normandy in the Bayeux Tapestry

King of the English

Reign 25 December 1066 – 9 September 1087

Coronation 25 December 1066

Predecessor Edgar Ætheling (uncrowned)

(otherwise) Harold II

Successor William II

Duke of the Normans

Reign 3 July 1035 – 9 September 1087

Predecessor Robert I the Magnificent

Successor Robert II Curthose

Spouse Matilda of Flanders

among othersIssue

Robert II, Duke of the Normans

Richard, Duke of Bernay

William II

Adela, Countess of Blois

Henry I

House Norman dynasty

Father Robert I, Duke of Normandy

Mother Herlette of Falaise

Born c. 1027[1]

Château de Falaise, Falaise, Normandy, France

Died 9 September 1087 (aged c.60)

Convent of St. Gervais, Rouen, France

Burial Saint-Étienne de Caen, France

William the Conqueror (French: Guillaume le Conquérant) (c. 1027 or 1028[1] – 9 September 1087), also known as William I of England, was the King of England from Christmas, 1066 until his death. He was also William II, Duke of Normandy, from 3 July 1035 until his death. Before his conquest of England, he was known as "William the Bastard" because of the illegitimacy of his birth.

To press his claim to the English crown, William invaded England in 1066, leading an army of Normans, Bretons, Flemish people, and Frenchmen (from Paris and Île-de-France) to victory over the English forces of King Harold Godwinson (who died in the conflict) at the Battle of Hastings, and suppressed subsequent English revolts in what has become known as the Norman Conquest.[2]

His reign, which brought Norman-French culture to England, had an impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages. The details of that impact and the extent of the changes have been debated by scholars for over a century. In addition to the obvious change of ruler, his reign also saw a programme of building and fortification, changes to the English language, a shift in the upper levels of society and the church, and adoption of some aspects of continental church reform.

Tuesday, 18 May 2010


The Civil War led to the trial and execution of Charles I, the exile of his son, Charles II, and replacement of English monarchy with first, the Commonwealth of England (1649–53), and then with a Protectorate (1653–59), under Oliver Cromwell's personal rule. The monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship in England ended with the victors consolidating the established Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. Constitutionally, the wars established the

War broke out less than forty years after the death of Elizabeth I in 1603. At the accession of Charles I in 1625, England and Scotland had both experienced relative peace, both internally and in their relations with each other, for as long as anyone could remember. Charles hoped to unite the kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland into a new single kingdom, fulfilling the dream of his father, James I of England (James VI of Scotland).[2] Many English Parliamentarians had suspicions regarding such a move, because they feared that setting up a new kingdom might destroy the old English traditions which had bound the English monarchy. As Charles shared his father's position on the power of the crown (James had described kings as "little Gods on Earth", chosen by God to rule in accordance with the doctrine of the "Divine Right of Kings"), the suspicions of the Parliamentarians had some justification.[3]

Friday, 14 May 2010


D-DAY or battle of Normandy was fought on the 6 of june 1944. It was between the Allies and the Axis BRITAIN ,AMERICA, AND CANADA WERE FIGHTING THE GERMANS OF HITLER.On that day Hitler was sleeping and the GERMANS REALLY NEEDED PANZER RESERVES AND THEY DID NOT MANAGE TO GET THEM AND BECAUSE OF THAT THE GERMANS LOST.

Wednesday, 14 April 2010


In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians and Getae - the North-Danubian branches of the Thracians. Dacia had in the middle the Carpathian Mountains and was bounded approximately by the Danubius river, in Greek sources Istros (the Danube) or, at its greatest extent, by the Haemus Mons (the Balkan Mountains) to the south–Moesia (Dobrogea), a region south of the Danube, was a core area where the Getae lived and interacted with the Ancient Greeks–Pontus Euxinus (the Black Sea) and river Danastris, in Greek sources Tyras (the Dniester) to the east (but several Dacian settlements are recorded in part of area between Dniester and Hypanis river (the Bug), and Tisia (the Tisza) to the west (but at times included areas between Tisa and middle Danube). It thus corresponds to modern countries of Romania and Moldova, as well as smaller parts of Bulgaria, Serbia, Hungary, and Ukraine.

History of Romania

This article is part of a series

This is some of the things Romania went through.



Dacian Wars

Roman Dacia


Early Middle Ages

Origin of the Romanians

Middle Ages

History of Transylvania

Principality of Transylvania

Foundation of Wallachia

Foundation of Moldavia

Early Modern Times


Danubian Principalities

National awakening

Organic Statute

1848 Moldavian Revolution

1848 Wallachian Revolution

United Principalities

War of Independence

Kingdom of Romania

World War I

Greater Romania

World War II

Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina

Communist Romania

Soviet occupation

1989 Revolution

Romania since 1989

Dacians and Getae were North Thracian tribes.[1] Dacian tribes had both peaceful and military encounters with other neighboring tribes, such as Celts, Ancient Germanics, Sarmatians, and Scythians, but were most influenced by the Ancient Greeks and Romans. The latter eventually conquered, and linguistically and culturally assimilated the Dacians. A Dacian Kingdom of variable size existed between 82 B.C. until the Roman conquest in 106 A.D. The capital of Dacia, Sarmizegetusa, located in modern Romania, was destroyed by the Romans, but its name was added to that of the new city (Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa) built by the latter to serve as the capital of the


The Peloponnesian War, 431 to 404 B.C., was an ancient Greek war, fought by Athens and its empire against the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta. Historians have traditionally divided the war into three phases. In the first phase, the Archidamian War, Sparta launched repeated invasions of Attica, while Athens took advantage of its naval supremacy to raid the coast of the Peloponnese attempting to suppress signs of unrest in its empire. This period of the war was concluded in 421 BC, with the signing of the Peace of Nicias. That treaty, however, was soon undermined by renewed fighting in the Peloponnese. In 415 BC, Athens dispatched a massive expeditionary force to attack Syracuse in Sicily; the attack failed disastrously, with the destruction of the entire force, in 413 BC. This ushered in the final phase of the war, generally referred to either as the Decelean War, or the Ionian War. In this phase, Sparta, now receiving support from Persia, supported rebellions in Athens' subject states in the Aegean Sea and Ionia, undermining Athens' empire, and, eventually, depriving the city of naval supremacy. The destruction of Athens' fleet at Aegospotami effectively ended the war, and Athens surrendered in the following year.

Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. The civilization coalesced around 3150 BC[1] with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh, and it developed over the next three millennia.[2] Its history occurred in a series of stable Kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods. Ancient Egypt reached its pinnacle during the New Kingdom, after which it entered a period of slow decline. Egypt was conquered by a succession of foreign powers in this late period, and the rule of the pharaohs officially ended in 31 BC when the early Roman Empire conquered Egypt and made it a province.[3]

The success of ancient Egyptian civilization stemmed partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River Valley. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which fueled social development and culture. With resources to spare, the administration sponsored mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions, the early development of an independent writing system, the organization of collective construction and agricultural projects, trade with surrounding regions, and a military intended to defeat foreign enemies and assert Egyptian dominance. Motivating and organizing these activities was a bureaucracy of elite scribes, religious leaders, and administrators under the control of a pharaoh who ensured the cooperation and unity of the Egyptian people in the context of an elaborate system of religious beliefs.

Friday, 9 April 2010


The Middle Ages (adjectival form: medieval or mediæval) is a period of European history from the 5th century through the 15th century. The period followed the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476, and preceded the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period in a three-period division of history: Classical, Medieval, and Modern. The term "Middle Ages" (medium aevum) was coined in the 15th century and reflects the view that this period was a deviation from the path of classical learning, a path supposedly reconnected by Renaissance scholarship.

The Early Middle Ages saw the continuation of trends set in Late Antiquity, depopulation, deurbanization, and increased barbarian invasion. North Africa and the Middle East, once part of the Eastern Roman Empire, were conquered by Islam. Later in the period, the establishment of the feudal system allowed a return to systemic agriculture. There was sustained urbanization in northern and western Europe. The influence of the Catholic Church was greatest during the High Middle Ages (c. 1000 - 1300), when Christian-oriented art and architecture flourished and Crusades were mounted to recapture the Holy Land. The ethic of chivalry appealed to the knights, or professional warriors, while courtly love provided rules for courtship.